The recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) provided the entire scientific community with an opportunity to reflect upon the legitimacy of retaining the diagnosis related to transgender and gender-nonconforming identities (APA 2015, Drescher 2009, Drescher 2015a, Meyer-Bahlburg 2009). Aim of the present paper is reviewing the main changes in the theoretical models, in medical and psychiatric settings, for the classifification of transgender and gender-nonconforming identities. Over the years, models focusing on the concept of mental degeneration gave way to new ones, emphasizing the peculiar experience of people with trans identities (Bockting 2009b). In recent times, the emergence of a new paradigm based on civil rights is aimed to address society at large, in order to promote an inclusive and respectful approach towards gender expression.
Key words: transgender, DSM, nosographical models, gender non-conforming